By Mircea Eliade, Rosemary Sheed
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Macrobius2 relates all theology to sun-worship, and sees within the solar Apollo, Liber-Dionysos, Mars, Mercury, Aesculapius, Hercules, Serapis, Osiris, Horus, Adonis, Nemesis, Pan, Saturn, Adad, or even Jupiter. The Emperor Julian, in his treatise at the sunlight King, and Proclus in his Hymn to the sunlight, provide their very own syncretist and' rationalist interpretations. those final honours paid to the sunlight within the twilight of antiquity aren't solely without importance ; they're like palimpsests during which lines of the previous writing can nonetheless be visible less than the new-they nonetheless show strains of the real, primitive hierophanies : the dependence of the solar on God which remembers the very early fable of the solarized demiurge, its connections with fecundity and vegetation etc. yet regularly talking, we discover there in simple terms the palest shadow of what the sunlight hierophanies as soon as intended, and relentless rational ization makes it paler nonetheless. The philosophers, final one of the " go with ", hence ultimately accomplished the secularization of what. was once one of many mightiest of the entire cosmic hierophanies. 1 Rep. , 508 b, c. ' Saturnalia, i, chs. xvii-xxili. ·152 PATIERNS IN COMPARATIVE faith BffiLIOGRAPHY On sunlight cults typically : BoLL, F. , Die Sonne im Glauben und in der Weltanschauung der a/ten Volker, Stuttgart, 1922 ; KRAPPE, A. G. , los angeles Genese des mythes, Paris, 1 938, pp. eight 1 ff. ; F'RAzBR, Sir James , The Worship of Nature, London, 1 926, vol. i, pp. 441 ff. ; D ECHELETTE, J. , " Le Culte du solei! aux temps prehistoriques " , RAR, 1 909, pp. 305 ff. ; Manuel d'archeo/ogie pre historique, celtique et gallo-romaine, Paris, 1 908- , vol. ii, pp. four 1 three ff. On solar myths : EHRENREICH, P. , " Die Sonne im Mythos " , Mythologische Bibliothek, Leipzig, 1 nine 1 5-6, vol. viii, 1 ; OID. MARKS, Ake, Heimdalls Horn . und Odins A uge, Lund, 1 937, vol. i, pp. 32 ff. , 257 ff. , and passim. at the " solarization " of the excellent Being : PETIAZZONI, R. , Dio, Rome, 1922, vol. i, p. 367. at the coexistence of sunlight and plant parts in Mesopotamian gods and religions : cr. FRANKFORT, H. , " Gods and Myths on Sargonid Seals ", lrak, 1 934, vol. i, pp. 2-29 ; ENGNELL, Ivan, experiences in Divine Kingship within the historic close to East, Uppsala, 1943 ; GoTZE, A. , Kleinasien, Leipzig, 1933 ; on Shamash, there's fabric and a bibliography in FURLANI, G. , los angeles Religione babilonese-assira, Bologna, 1 928-9, vol. i, pp. 1 62-9 ; vol. ii, pp. 1 79-83, and so forth. ; DHoRME, E. , Les Religions de Babylonie et d'Assyrie ; additionally MA, Paris, 1 945, vol. ii, pp. 60-7, eight 6-9 ; on Shamash and the artwork of divining ; HALDAR, A. , institutions of Cult Prophets one of the historic Semites, Uppsa1a, 1 945, pp. 1 ff. at the sunlight parts in Arctic and northerly Asiatic religions : LEHTISALO, Entwurf einer Mythologie der Jurak-Samoyeden, Helsinki, 1927 ; GAHS, A. , " Kopf-, Schadel- und Langknochenopfer bei Rentier volkem " , Festschrift . W. Schmidt, Modling, 1 928, pp. 231-68. On sunlight religions one of the Munda tribes : Cf. DALTON, E. T. , Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal, Calcutta, 1 872 ; FRAZER, Sir J.