By Barbara Titus
The influence of Hegelian philosophy on 19th-century song criticism
Music’s prestige as an paintings shape used to be distrusted within the context of German idealist philosophy which exerted an exceptional effect at the complete 19th century. Hegel insisted that the content material of a piece of artwork may be grasped in ideas so that it will determine its religious substantiality (Geistigkeit), and that no item, observe or photo may possibly thoroughly characterize the content material and which means of a musical paintings. within the mid-nineteenth century, Friedrich Theodor Vischer and different Hegelian aestheticians stored insisting on art's conceptual readability, yet they tailored the cultured approach on which this requirement were dependent. Their variations grew to become out to be decisive for the advance of song feedback, to such an volume that track critics used them to show musical content material and to verify music’s autonomy as an paintings shape. This ebook unravels the community of track critics and philosophers, together with not just Hegel but additionally Franz Liszt, Franz Brendel, and Eduard Hanslick, whose works formed public evaluations of song
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Additional info for Recognizing Music as an Art Form: Friedrich Th. Vischer and German Music Criticism, 1848-1887
As Frank Hentschel additionally observes (2006, 306ff), it grew to become more and more stated that musical sort will be decided by way of musical features: its fabric as process instead of as a fabricated from the Spirit. It used to be thought of extra very important to have interaction with musical kind as a method than to figure out how track equipped within the greater context of human expression and improvement. within the 1870s and Eighties, more and more aestheticians started to recommend that Vischer and Köstlin, with their particularly constrained wisdom of song, had acknowledged little in regards to the former, simply because they'd been chapter 8 – the development of musical scholarship 169 exclusively within the latter. hence, it used to be additionally felt that an perception into the only didn't unavoidably result in clever engagement with the opposite. This intended that the hassle to provide an explanation for all varieties of human expression, together with track, from one sole precept used to be progressively deserted. The Retreat of the assumption The retreat of the assumption might be saw even higher within the aesthetics of Vischer’s so much unswerving follower, Ernst von Elterlein, a pseudonym for the tune critic Ernst Gottschald. Elterlein had reviewed Vischer’s musical aesthetics within the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (1857a & 1857b), and wrote a publication approximately Beethoven’s symphonies (Beethoven’s Symphonien nach ihrem idealen Gehalt) with the goal of utilizing Vischer’s aesthetics on to tune. the 1st variation of this booklet, released anonymously, dates from 1854. the second one variation of 1858, ‘entirely revised and extended’, served to make Vischer’s ‘epoche machende Geistesthat’ extra available to musicians (Elterlein 1858, viii). thirteen The 1858 variation, released almost immediately after Vischer’s 1857 quantity on track, was once devoted to Vischer (‘Herrn Prof. Dr. Friedrich Theodor Vischer in Zürich aus innigster Verehrung und aufrichtigster Dankbarkeit gewidmet vom Verfasser’),vii with a two-page eulogy to Vischer (Elterlein 1858, v & vi). through the publication, Vischerian terminology is apparent in Elterlein’s descriptions of Beethoven’s song. 14 Like Vischer, Elterlein argues that ‘particularity of expression’ (Bestimmtheit des Empfindungsausdruckes) could be the 1st and finest crisis of any artist. He attracts on Vischer’s works in invoking the techniques of Lust (inclination) and Unlust (reluctance), which ensure the variety of moods (Empfindungen) that safeguards this particularity of expression (1858, eighty three) (Figure 4). Vischer’s department of track into vocal and instrumental and their assorted modes of expression is utilized by Elterlein to teach Beethoven’s superiority in comparison to different composers, particularly modern 13 I have controlled to find the second one (1858) and 3rd (1870) versions of Elterlein’s publication. for the reason that the 1858 version is Vischer’s 1857 song quantity in a nutshell, the 1st variation of Elterlein’s e-book (1854) should have been relatively diverse, because it was once written earlier than Vischer’s treatise seemed. 14 Elterlein, like a lot of his contemporaries, additionally attracts on E.